The history of Judaism is heavily related to the background and history of the Jews as a community or culture and their place and relevance in the world, as well as their interaction with other cultures and religions. Judaism in religious terms made its first appearance in Greek scriptures, in times of ancient Greek (Hellenic) and Mediterranean history. Ancient scriptures refer to the Israelites from around the year 1500 BC. History of Judaism is often tied to the Babylonian conquest, as well as to the Roman Empire, and stretches even all the way to the Byzantine period, when, in the year 638, the Byzantine Empire lost rule over the region known as the Levant. Unfortunately, the Jewish community had to endure detraction, discrimination, and hate for many centuries. In the Middle Ages (during the Ottoman period) Jews were able to enjoy a brief period of peace and they were not antagonized by other religions and thus they were able to lead a culturally and economically prosperous life.
Both the Renaissance and the Enlightenment periods brought about some changes for the Jews. They wanted to break free from some laws that restricted their rights and towards the end of the 19th century, the community started to request they be allowed to move back to the lands that had been taken away from them centuries before; namely, Israel. They fought for the right to settle back in Israel and establish a Jewish nation. Around the same time, in the US and in Europe, many Jewish become renown for their cultural and scientific success, among them (Albert Einstein), and some even were awarded the Nobel prize.
In the 1930s, with the rise to power of German Adolf Hitler, together with the Nazi party founded by him, life for most Jews in Europe became a nightmare. The invasion of the European continent by Hitler resulted in the massacre of millions of Jewish people.